International Journal of Medical Science and Dental Research

Current Issue Volume 6 Issue 6 (November 2023)

    • The role of Local Government Level in Public Health in Australia
      The focus of public health has traditionally been one of clinical prevention and evidence-based services for health care. Many governments have shifted the focus of public health to innovative practices where services are provided outside the clinical setting within the community, and where interventions and outcomes are designed for community wide health promotion and protection. Local government authority is important in achieving this goal and its role is expanding in this regard. However, there is much to understand in terms of implementation and refinement in terms of the challenges, drivers, outcomes, and performance, particularly the role of local government in providing strategic partnerships with the community as a key stakeholder, in health protection and promotion in improving the numerous social determinants of health. This review examined the role within an Australian context to provide a way forward to more informed and effective responses to public health. This review showed an expanding role of LG in health protection beyond health promotion and community engagement to a shift in power and responsibility. Some of the recommendations made were clarifying the role LG in legislation, greater funding and resources, and greater use of evidence-based interventions through a range of public health issues from obesity, food safety and security, to climate change resilience and emergency preparedness.

      Keywords:: public health, local government, Australia, promotion, protection, lifestyle, community

    • Effect of Periodontal Therapy on Salivary Nitric Oxide Levels in Chronic Periodontitis Patients with and without Hypertension
      Background: Nitric Oxide(NO) is a multifunctional signaling molecule involved in the maintenance of metabolic, cardiovascular homeostasis and a potent endogenous vasodilator that suppresses the formation of vascular lesions in atherosclerosis. Through nitrate-nitrite reduction and some commensal oral bacteria can supply bioactive NO, which is essential for the endothelial cell function and regulation of arterial BP, it is thought that a decreased quantity of oral nitrate-reducing bacteria and an increased quantity of pathogenic bacteria are responsible for a correlation between oral hygiene and chronic periodontitis and at a later stage cardiovascular diseases(CVD).
      Aim: To evaluate the effect of periodontal therapy on salivary NO levels in chronic periodontitis (CP) patients and chronic periodontitis patients with hypertension.
      Materials and methods: A total of 60 subjects with age group of 20-55 years male and female subjects, divided into three groups, 20 each. Group I– control (Healthy), group II–CP (chronic periodontitis) and group III–CP with Hypertension. Subjects underwent clinical examination for Plaque Index, Gingival Bleeding Index, Probing Pocket Depth, Clinical Attachment Level using UNC15 probe and Blood pressure measurement using Sphygmomanometer. Salivary nitric oxide concentration detected using human N Strips developed from University of Texas health science. All the parameters were evaluated at baseline and 4weeks after initial periodontal therapy.
      Result: Four weeks after initial periodontal therapy both groups II and III exhibited improvement in clinical periodontal parameters (OHI-S, GI, PPD, CAL) and at baseline salivary NO levels were depleted in group III and low in group II, after 4 weeks salivary NO was low and adequate respectively however, statistically significant differences were observed only with OHI-(S) and salivary NO values in both groups II and III (p < 0.05). However, when the post-treatment clinical periodontal parameters and salivary NO level of groups II and III were compared, statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed except for PPD and CAL between the groups.
      Conclusions: Study revealed depleted salivary nitric oxide levels in periodontitis with hypertensive group and low levels of nitric oxide levels with chronic periodontitis patients as compared to the control group at baseline and the NO levels were improved after 4 weeks in both the groups II and III improving the blood pressure levels. Salivary Levels NO can be utilized as an indicator for assessment of the periodontitis as well as hypertensive patients. Periodontal therapy is effective in improving salivary levels of NO in both the groups.
      Clinical significance: A co- relationship exists between periodontal disease and hypertension. NO is found to play a significant role in the pathobiology of both CP and hypertyension. Initial periodontal therapy seems to be beneficial in improving salivary NO levels along with periodontal parameters in CP patients with or without hypertension. However further studies are warranted to enhance our knowledge about the role of NO in periodontal diseases in the course of hypertension.

      Keywords: Hypertension, Periodontal Therapy, Periodontitis, Salivary Nitric oxide.

    • Effect Of Erytin Emsa Inhibition Endothelial Dysfunction in Diabetes Mellitus Rats
      This study aims to determine the effect of administering the polyherbal EMSA Eritin on inhibiting endothelial dysfunction which is characterized by a decrease in the production of Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC), circulating endothelial cells (CEC), malondiadedhyde (MDA), and Superoxide dismutase (SOD). This study used a Randomized Post Test Control Group design which was divided into 5 groups (negative control, positive control, EMSA Eritin 1, EMSA Eritin 2, and EMSA Eritin 3). The intervention was provided for 28 days. Data were analyzed using anova with a confidence level of 95%. Data were analyzed using the SPSS version 21.0 program. The results showed that administration of the EMSA Eritin polyherbal had an effect on suppressing the production of EPC, CEC, MDA, and SOD. Polyherbal EMSA Eritin can inhibit endothelial dysfunction involving oxidative stress, endothelial damage which is characterized by a decrease in the production of EPC, CEC, MDA, and SOD.

      Keywords: Endothelial progenitor cells, Circulating endothelial cells, malondiadedhyde, dan Superoxide dismutase.

      Gingival hyperplasia is common in patients with fixed orthodontic appliances who have poor oral hygiene. This gingival enlargement is characterized by a slow, continuous and sometimes asymptomatic development. Clinically, gingival hyperplasia presents as an irregular contour and swelling, making it necessary to adopt a surgical approach to provide regular contouring of the gingival margin, returning esthetics and function to the periodontal tissue. The classification of hyperplasias is defined according to the causal factor, and in this case it is a hyperplasia caused by orthodontic trauma associated with poor hygiene. Objective: The aim of this paper is to report a clinical case of a patient with gingival hyperplasia, with an aesthetic complaint and treated surgically by surgical excision. Case Report: A 22-year-old female patient was wearing an orthodontic appliance and during clinical examination it was found that there was an increase in gingival tissue and extension with the periodontal probe, in addition to the presence of biofilm on the brackets and gingival margin. The treatment of choice was gingivoplasty, in which a surgical excision of the swollen gingiva was performed, respecting the biological space of 3 mm, without any complications. Postoperative recommendations were made, and a satisfactory postoperative period was achieved, reaching the expected results. Conclusion: In addition to surgery, it is necessary that the patient maintain adequate oral hygiene to prevent recurrence of gingival hyperplasia.

      Keywords: Gingival hyperplasia. Fixed orthodontic appliance. Dental biofilm.

    • Assessment of Knowledge, Awareness and Vaccination Compliance of Hepatitis B
      Background: Viral hepatitis refers to a liver infection transmitted through blood, specifically caused by the Hepatitis B virus (HBV). Immunization serves as an effective preventive measure against this particular disease. Medical students face an increased susceptibility to contracting the Hepatitis B virus (HBV) as a result of work exposure. Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the level of knowledge and awareness regarding Hepatitis B (Hep B) vaccination, as well as the extent to which students enrolled in health colleges at university adhere to vaccination guidelines. Methods: A cross-sectional quantitative study was conducted, involving the administration of a close-ended survey to 394 medical students at university. The data acquired from the survey was subjected to statistical analysis using the SPSS program. Results: The findings from the descriptive analysis indicate that a higher proportion of participants identified as males (73%) compared to females (26.9%). The majority of the subjects (92%) did not exhibit HBV infection. Approximately half of the participants said that they did not receive the hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination. of the level of awareness among the participants, it was found that 43.60% of respondents were uninformed about the specific duration required to attain complete immunity through vaccination doses. Conversely, 57.11% of the participants shown awareness of the protective efficacy of the vaccine against HBV infection. Approximately 71.07% of the participants had the understanding that Hepatitis B is a disease that mostly affects the liver, and they are knowledgeable about the availability of vaccine as a means of prevention. Nevertheless, a notable proportion of participants (44%) exhibited a lack of awareness regarding the presence of asymptomatic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Conclusion: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a multifaceted viral illness. The level of vaccine knowledge among students was found to be insufficient. Consequently, it is advisable to enhance the awareness and understanding of medical students, given their elevated susceptibility to HBV infection.

      Keywords: HBV, awareness, knowledge, hepatitis, vaccination.

    • Knowledge and awareness about aesthetic crowns in children among dental Undergraduates, Postgraduates and General dental practitioners
      Aim: To assess the knowledge and awareness about aesthetic crowns in children among dental undergraduates, postgraduates and general dental practitioners.
      Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 400 participants who were divided into two groups of 200 each, Group 1- Dental Students (Undergraduates); Group 2- Clinicians (Postgraduates and General Practitioners treating children other than Pediatric Dentists). A questionnaire containing 19 questions regarding the procedures done on the deciduous teeth, different type of crowns available for primary teeth, aesthetic crowns and the procedure for their placement were asked using the computer- generated questionnaire (Google form) which was submitted online. The collected data was subjected to statistical analysis.
      Result: The study comprised of 51.8% undergraduates, 31.6% postgraduates and 16.6% general practitioners (Table 1). Full coverage crowns are necessary after a pulp therapy for primary teeth was a finding among 83.1% of the Group1 participants and 88.1 % of the Group 2 participants. Tooth- coloured crowns to their pediatric patients was recommended by 87.8% of the Group 1 participants and 79.4% of the Group 2 participants (Table 2).
      Conclusion: The study concluded that most of the participants had a fair knowledge about aesthetic crowns used in children.

      Keywords: Aesthetic crowns, General Dental Practitioners, Postgraduates, Undergraduates, Zirconia Crowns,

    • Multiple primary cancers: a case report and literature review
      The fortuitous discovery of synchronous double primary cancers of the lung and stomach is relatively rare, but the discovery of triple primary cancers in one patient remains exceptional. The discovery of triple primary cancers in a single patient remains exceptional. This coexistence corresponds to the syndrome of multiple primary malignancies or multiple primary cancers (MPC). We present a case of synchronous association of squamous cell carcinoma of the lung and gastric adenocarcinoma with a history of mature squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx.

      Keywords: larynx; lung; stomach; adenocarcinoma; squamous cell carcinoma.