International Journal of Medical Science and Dental Research

Volume 1 Issue 2 (November 2018)

    • Effects of AlcoholAdministration During Pregnancy on Litter Size, Litter and Maternal Body Weights of Albino Rats
      Abstract:Problems related to alcohol ranks among the global public health concerns. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of alcohol consumption during pregnancy on litter size, litter and maternal body weights. Twenty (20) female albino rats divided into five groups A – D (n=5) were used. Groups D served as pregnant control and received food and water only. Groups A, B, and C received 0.3g/kg, 0.8g/kg and 2g/kg body weight of ethanol respectively once daily via oral gavage until delivery. Litter sizes and birth weights were recorded on the days of birth. The pups were also examined for any overt physical abnormalities in comparison to those obtained from the pregnant control. The body weights of the treated and control rats before and at the end of the experiment were recorded. Results showed a statistically significant dose-dependent decrease in body weight gain of the rats in groups B and C when compared with the control. Marked reduction in litter size and birth weights were also observed after delivery especially in treatment groups B and C (p<0.05). In conclusion, the present study revealed that alcohol consumption in pregnancy may be associated with negative outcomes in pregnant rats and their litters.
      Keywords -Alcohol, pregnancy, albino rats, body weight, litter size, litter weights

      • Ethical Issues in Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research: A Christian Perspective
        Abstract:Embryonic stem cell research is one of the biomedical researches that have generated ethical controversies in recent time. The aim of this paper is to analyze the ethical issues in embryonic stem cell research, from the stand point of Christianity. Embryonic stem cell research involves the harvesting of human embryos for the purpose of research and therapeutic uses. This novel area of biomedical research holds great promise for understanding basic mechanisms of human development and differentiation, as well as the hope for new treatments for degenerative diseases. Findings of the study show that the ethical consideration in embryonic stem cell research arises as a result of the destruction of the embryo in the process. Secular biomedical researchers ignore the human status of the embryo and therefore do not see any moral problem with the destruction of the embryos. Christians on the other hand view the embryo as a human being in the early developmental stage, and therefore do not support the destruction of the embryo for the purpose of research. Based on the findings of the study, some recommendations were made which include; the need to harness spiritual healing methods to cure diseases, and the need for firmness and boldness among Christians in rejecting the practice. Future generations of unborn children will be preserved if the Christian principle of sanctity of life is maintained, even for embryos.
        Keywords -Stem cell, Embryo, Ethics, Christianity.

        • Malaria Laboratory Diagnostic Approaches
          Abstract:Malaria is an infection caused by plasmodium transmitted bu infected female anopheles mosquitoes to humans especially in this part of the world. Malaria infection has remained endemic and challenging in control and eradication despite all the measures adopted by World Health Organisation.The environmental and genetic factors have contributed immensely to the uncontrolled spread of the infection. A lot of methods are adopted in the diagnosis of malaria infection for proper treatment of the patients. In all these methods Microscopy has remained a reference method for malaria diagnosis but there are other methods which are discussed in this paper. Those involved in the diagnosis should pay attention to the clinical features of the patients and the differential features of different species of plasmodium and their stages for effective treatment. Early diagnosis remains the best option in the treatment of malaria.

          • A Retrospective Study on Human Immune Deficiency Virus among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic in Imo State University Teaching Hospital (IMSUTH) ORLU JANUARY - DECEMBER, 2016
            Abstract:This study investigated the incidence of human immune deficiency virus (HIV) amongst pregnant women who attended antenatal clinic in Imo State University Teaching Hospital (IMSUTH), Orlu between January' - December, 2016. The study was carried out to ascertain the prevalence of HIV amongst pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in IMSUTH, to determine the age range with the highest incidence and the socio-economic status of the women. The result of this study will add to the existing knowledge on HIV and throw more light on HIV incidence amongst pregnant women. It will also provide information and data base for other researchers/institution, encourage health practitioners and the government to be more aware of HIV prevalence amongst its citizens thus enabling them to organize periodic seminars and awareness programme on HIV infection and it’s spread. A retrospective descriptive study approach was adopted by the researcher through past medical records and document as the instrument for data collection. A sample size of 94 patients was used to represent the entire population. Results obtained showed that the incidence rate of HIV was 15.4% with highest rate recorded in November 15(15.9%) followed by August and October that had a incidence rate of 12(12.8%) while the lowest was in March 2(2.1%). Also, the results showed that the age range with the highest incidence is between 21-30years. Furthermore, the socio-economic status of women with highest incidence was traders 40(19.6%) followed by civil servants 17(13.9%), house wives 21(12.9%), students 11(13.6%) conclusions were drawn, recommendation made and suggestions for further studies given.
            Keywords: HIV, pregnant women, Antenatal Clinic, Imo State

            • Attitude, Practice and Factors Influencing Exclusive Breast Feeding Among Nursing Mothers In Federal Medical Centre, Owerri
              Abstract:This study examined the attitude, practice and factors influencing exclusive breast feeding among nursing mothers in postnatal ward in Federal Medical Centre, Owerri. Three research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. The population of the study consisted of all the nursing mother who attended in the postnatal ward of Federal Medical Centre, Owerri with the likelihood of engaging in exclusive breast feeding. The study was descriptive survey using a simple-random sampling in selecting three hundred and eighteen (318) respondents. A questionnaire was used for data collection with Cronbach Alpha reliability co-efficient of 0.85. Data collected were analyzed using mean and percentage to answer the research question, while Chi-square was used to test the hypothesis of 0.05 level of significance. The result revealed that nursing mothers in the study area have positive attitude toward exclusive breastfeeding and they practice exclusive breastfeeding the large extent. Occupation of women, inconvenience, conflicts at work, family pressure and health status of mother are major factors that influence exclusive breastfeeding among nursing mothers. Also, the practice of exclusive breastfeeding is independent of age and educational status of the nursing mothers. It was recommended among others that health workers should use every opportunity to create awareness on the need for exclusive breastfeeding and in designing interventions considering the identify factors.
              Keywords: Attitude, practice, factors influencing exclusive breast feeding, nursing mothers