International Journal of Medical Science and Dental Research

Volume 2 Issue 1 (January-February 2019)

    • Vascular pathology of diabetic foot: A review article
      Background: The frequency of diabetes has increased significantly during the past decade.Although diabetic complications diabetic foot is the most serious diabetic complication, its pathophysiology has not been well recognizedby the medical community. Medical publications have introduced etiologies for diabetic foot. With this in mind,this review article was performed to evaluate vascular pathology of diabetic foot in diabetic patients.
      Methods: We searched for articles published between January 1986 and June 2016 (30 years). Out of389 articles, we excluded 381 articles based on exclusion criteria and retained 7 for data extraction. From these 7 articles, 4 articles were observational, and 3 articles were used as a randomized controlled trial (RCT).
      Results:5 out of these 7 selected articles showed that atherosclerosis is the etiology of vasculopathy, including anincrease in ox-LDL and ischemia-modified albumin, a decrease in paraoxonase 1, anincrease in the number of mature dendritic cells, and decrease in the number tolerogenic dendritic cells. Only one case report found that thrombosis may be involved in the development of diabetic foot, and states that this is the first time that deep vein thrombosis has been reported as the etiology of diabetic foot. In only one case report itwas found that leukocytoclastic vasculitis may cause diabetic foot.The other etiologies that have been mentioned as other factors causing diabetic foot (etc. vasospasm), no study has been done to verify these claims.
      Conclusion: According to the 7 mentioned studies, we can prescribe medicines tailored forthese mechanisms in diabetic patients in order to prevent diabetic foot.
      Ethical number registration: IR.SSU.MEDICINE.REC.1394.310.
      Keywords: Diabetic foot, Pathology,Vasculitis, Atherosclerosis, Vascular diseases

      • Impact of Malaria in Pregnancy: Implications on The Fetus and Children
        Abstract: Malaria is a serious public health challenge especially in the developing world like Nigeria. It is more devastating in highly endemic areas like our country. The infection has no age and sex limit but is more felt among the les preveiledged because of poor income to cater for medical expenses. Malaria infection is more prevalent among the pregnant women and children due to low immunological status of the patient. Malaria infection impacts negatively on the babies ranging from low birth weight to high mortality and anaemia. More serious measures should be adopted to prevent the speed of malaria and pregnant women should be properly managed to ensure sound life and that of their children.The paper discussed the implications of malaria infection to children.

        Keywords: malaria, pregnancy, implications on the fetus and children.

        • Cytotoxicity of toothpastes used for gum health
          Abstract: Objective:The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of 4 different toothpaste on the L929 mouse fibroblast cells.Materials and Methods: Cytotoxicity of Colgate Total Pro Gum Health, Ipana Pro Expert Clinic Line Gum Protection, Paradontax Compelete Protection and Paradontax Extra Fresh toothpastes evaluated by XTT assay on L929 cells Results: Different degrees of cytotoxicity were observed in toothpastes. Mean survival rate of L929 cells exposed to Colgate Pro Gum Health in wells were 57,25%, 56,71% for Ipana Pro Expert Clinic Line Gum Protection, 45,05% for Paradontax Complete Protection and 37,49% for Paradontax Extra Fresh. Coclusion:Toothpastes, marketed for gum health are cytotoxic. Paradontax Complete Protection and Paradontax Extra Fresh more cytotoxic than Colgate Total Pro Gum Health and Ipana Pro Expert Clinic Line Gum Protection to L929 cells. We recommend manufacturers to review the contents of their toothpastes.

          Keywords: Toothpastes, biocompatibility, cytotoxicity, XTT, L929

          • Methods of Breast Feeding as Determinants of Malaria Infections among Babies in IMO State, Nigeria
            Abstract: A survey on the methods of breast feeding as a determinant of malaria among breast fed babies was conducted between February and October, 2017 in Owerri Municipality in Imo State. A total of 400 babies between the ages of 0-2 years with their mothers were randomly selected from households and participated in the exercise. A well-structured questionnaire was used to source information from the mothers on their method of child breastfeeding and other demographic data. Blood samples were collected from the infants through finger pricking and were examined using the gold standard method of Giemsa stain of thin and thick film under X100 objective lens. Out of 400 infants encountered 123(30.75%) were exclusively breastfed and of these number, 15(12.20%) were positive of malaria parasite. Out of 277(69.25%) infants who were not exclusively breastfed, 111(40.07%) had malaria infection. Age range related malaria prevalence result among exclusively breastfed babies revealed that infection was higher among the age range of 19-24 months,(27.33%) and (62.86%) among the non-exclusively breastfed babies of the same age range while the least infected group were those of age range,0-6 months4.76% and19.39% respectively for both groups. Gender related prevalence result showed that males had the highest prevalence of malaria in both exclusively and nonexclusively breastfed babies, with 15.38% and 42.52%infection respectively. Statistically, infections were dependent on the methods of breast feeding and age range,(p<0.05)and independent on gender,(p<0.05). Low malaria prevalence observed among the exclusively breastfed babies coupled with other benefits makes exclusive breast feeding beneficial to mothers, babies and the society. Public health education and enlightenment campaign on exclusive breastfeeding should be highly promoted among child bearing mothers at the grass root level to create more awareness on its usefulness.

            Keywords: Exclusive, breastfeeding, non- exclusive, and mothers.

            • Assessment of Some Inflammatory Cytokines in Malaria Infected Pregnant Women in Imo State Nigeria
              Abstract: A cross-sectional prospective study was carried out on malaria infected pregnant women attending FMC Owerri , Imo state, Nigeria with the aim of assessing some, inflammatory cytokines. A total of 300 subjects within the age range of 18-45 years:100 infected pregnant women , 100 non- infected pregnant women and 100 non-infected non pregnant women (were recruited) for this study. Blood samples were collected from the subjects using standard method. These were analysed for inflammatory cytokines using ELISA kits. Also malaria parasite infection was screened using rapid test kit (Bio) and confirmed microscopically. In addition, questionnaires were administered to the subjects to elicit demographic information about the consequences of malaria infection. The ages of the participants were analysed using percentages. All statistical analysis was performed using statistical package SAS version 9.4.The results were expressed as mean ± standard error of mean. Two tailed ANOVA and student t-test were used for comparison of differences in various groups and the level of significant was set at P<0.05.Pearson correlation was used for test of association of the various groups. The various results were represented graphically using overlay plot, box plot. The data showed the mean age of the participant 29+ 5.2 (40%), followed by 31-35 age range (26%). Most of the participants (78%) were in the third trimester at the time of study, while 14 and 8 were in the second and first trimester respectively. About three quarter of the participants (46%) were self employed, (16.7%) were civil servants and establishment, while the rest were workers in private, traders, students and unemployed..Plasmodium falciparum was the only specie identified. The results of the inflammatory cytokines indicated significant increase in TNF-α and IL-6, significant decrease in IL-4 (P<0.05). Inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-4 and IL-10) are implicated in immunopathogenesis of malaria infection in pregnancy.

              Keywords: Inflammatory Cytokines, Malaria, Pregnant Women, Imo State Nigeria

              • An Update on Impact of Malaria in Pregnancy on Hematological Parameters
                Abstract: Malaria infection occurs among all classes of persons including the young and the old but is more pronounced in children and pregnant women because of their immune status. Pregnant women are known to express immune suppression leading to increase prevalence of malaria in them. Malaria infection has a lot of alterations in the hematological parameters of pregnant women which may lead to high level of anemia in them. It is important to prevent malaria infection in pregnancy to avert high morbidity and mortality associated with malaria infection among pregnant women. This paper discussed impact of malaria infection in pregnancy.

                Keywords: malaria, pregnancy, hematological parameters