International Journal of Medical Science and Dental Research

Volume 2 Issue 2 (March-April 2019)

    • Dentists' errors as seen on the example of Polish medical disciplinary boards
      This Article outlines the dentist's obligations in relation to diagnosis and treatment, the performance of which by the dentist should be grounded in with the principle of due diligence. This is derived not only from the provisions of the law but also from deontological norms. However, decisions of Polish medical disciplinary boards ('sąd lekarski', literally: 'medical court') bring to light certain irregularities, found in 10-25 % of all cases.
      Keywords: dentist, medical disciplinary board, due diligence, penalties.

      • The Effect of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. Extract on Improvement of Macrophage Phagocytosis Activity
        Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a risk factor of tuberculosis, that hyperglycemia conditions causing impaired immune responses including phagocyte function so that it can facilitate M. tuberculosis infection. Therefore, it takes therapy to improve the immune system, one of them by using Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. extract as immunostimulant.
        Aim: To analyze the effect of extract H. rosa-sinensis L. on macrophage phagocytosis activity in animal TB-DM model.
        Method: The research was an experimental used 9 male Wistar rats, 8 weeks-old, weight 200-230grams, divided into 3 treatment groups i.e. K (control), P1 (positive TB-DM), P2 (positive TB-DM treated with H. rosa-sinensis L. extract), and treated for 21 days. Animal TB-DM model was prepared with the administration of 100mg/kg nicotinamide (NA) and 65mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ), and injected with 1,5x105 CFU M. tuberculosis. Macrophage activity test was performed using intraperitoneal fluid that staining with Giemsa. Phagocytosis activity was determined based on the number of macrophage cells in 100 cells. The data were obtained from that test, then analyzed using Kruskal Wallis.
        Result: The macrophage activity test showed that the mean macrophage activity in group K was 57 ± 2.082 cells, P1 group was 46 ± 2,517 cells, and P2 group was 82.33 ± 2,404 cells. The result of statistic analysis showed that H. rosa-sinensis L. extract was able to increase macrophage activity significantly (P = 0.027 ).
        Conclusion: H. rosa-sinensis L. extract increase the activity of peritoneal macrophages phagocytosis activity in animal TB-DM model. Keywords: Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L., TB-DM, macrophage.

          Portraits of current health problems are very diverse, one that continues to experience an increase in stroke. Stroke is the leading cause of death for preventable nakedness. Post-stroke patients who survive have limitations in performing of activity daily living independently . The MRP method is one of the most effective training methods in improving ADL in post stroke. This research aims to understand the influence of MRP to ADL ability among post stroke patients. This research uses pre experimental with one group pretest-posttest research design . This is an experimental research with one group pretest-posttest design. The sampling technique is purposive sampling with 20 samples who appropriate with the inclusion criteria, then ADL capability is measured using Modified Barthel Index (MBI). The result indicated that 12 times application of MRP method significantly The results showed 6 respondents are dependent medium, 10 respondents dependen minimum and 4 respondents are independent. Based onpaired t test it can be conclude that there is an effect of MRP to ADL ability among post stroke patients (p = 0.001, p <0.05).
          Keywords: Activity of Daily Living, Motor Relearning Program, Post Stroke.

            Basketball players need good physical conditions, one of which is the balance component, both static and dynamic balance. Balance is needed in basketball techniques to improve performance and reduce the risk of injury. Single leg exercise is one of the exercises whose aim is to increase muscle strength and balance. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of single leg exercise on the level of static and dynamic balance in extracurricular members of basketball. The study type is pre-experimental design, with the study approach of one group pre-posttest design. The study population is all students of State 1 High School Maros who take extracurricular basketball. The sampling technique used was purposive sampling technique with the number of samples of 23 people. This study used Wilcoxon statistical test for static balance level and found that single leg exercise can improve the level of static balance after 15 treatments. As for dynamic balance level, this study used paired t-test and obtained the result that single leg exercise can improve the level of dynamic balance after 15 treatments. There is influence of giving single leg exercise to level of balance in extracurriculer members of basketball after given 15 times (p< 0,001, p<0,05) treatments.
            Keywords: Dynamic balance, Single leg exercise, static balance,.

            • Evaluation of the Commitment of the Tempomandibular Joint in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis
              Rheumatoid arthritis (R.A.) is an autoimmune disease, chronic, systemic and progressive that mainly affects peripheral and small joints. The diagnosis is based on the criteria of the American College of Rheumatology (A.C.R.), September 2010. In the definition of the pathology given by the Argentine Society of Rheumatology, it is described that it compromises the temporomandibular joint (T.M.J.). This clinical odontology research would allow a quick guidance and safe markers to TMJ disturbance in RA. Would provide a correct non-invasive diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of this pathology.
              Keywords: Rheumatoid arthritis, temporomandibular joint, ultrasound.

              • Effectiveness of Motor Control Exercise on Increasing Functional Ability of Lumbar Joint in Non-Specific Low Back Pain
                Non-specific low back pain is a symptom of low back pain that occurs without unknown cause, could result in pain, muscle spasms, and imbalance muscle, and decrease the stability of the abdominal and lower back muscles. Motor control exercise is a method that activates deep muscle and global muscle in order to improve the coordination, control, and capacity of the trunk muscles to enhance the functional ability of the lumbar. This study used an experimental study with a one-group pretest-posttest design. The sampling technique is purposive sampling with 20 respondents, age 35 – 65 years, no fracture, and receive no medication related to pain. Measuring tools used is Rolland Morris Disability Questionnaire to determine daily functional capabilities of the Lumbar joint before and after 12 times of MCE. The data collected is analyzed by SPSS 23.0 with significance value p<0.05. The results shown that 20 respondents had an increase in lumbar functional ability (p<0.01). The conclusion is motor control exercise is an effective treatment to increase functional ability of the lumbar joint in non-specific low back pain.
                Keywords: functional ability, low back pain, lumbar joint, motor control exercise, rolland morris disability questionnaire.

                • Chagas´disease, BMI, ACEI/D polymorphism interactions and some considerations on the “Obesity Paradox”
                  Chagas´ disease (ChD), a parasitic disease widely distributed in Argentina, courses mainly with myocardiopathy due to parasympathetic denervation evolving to right hypertrophy, dilatation, or left insufficiency and dilatation. Chagas´ disease comorbidities include hypertension, cardiac remodeling and obesity. The D allele of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE I) gene is associated with similar cardiometabolic imbalances. Though obesity is a risk factor of disease, some studies, have suggested that reduces mortality due to infectious diseases. We discuss whether ChD high BMI may be attributed merely to parasitic damage or to a hypothetic interaction between parasite and ACE I/D polymorphism. DNA was obtained from leukocytes of 79 patients including control and infected individuals of closed and open communities to detect ACE I/D polymorphism, the rest of the sample underwent ELISA for Chagas ´disease and routines for lipids and glucose. Chagas´disease strongly associated with D allele, ≥30 BMI, high LDL cholesterol, creatinine and triglycerides but lower glucose. ≥30 BMI was evenly distributed among DD, I/D and II genotypes. No II patient was infected. ≥30 BMI was not determined by ACE genotype. Since evolution was benign except for one morbid obese and two low BMI patients, overweight, not obesity seems to be protective.
                  Keywords: ACE I/D polymorphism, BMI, Chagas´ disease.

                  • Assessment of Some Haematological Parameters Using Varying Concentrations of EDTA
                    Studies on the effects of varying concentrations of EDTA was investigated on packed cell volume (PCV), total white blood cell count (TWBC) and platelet count. The research was carried out on blood samples collected into different concentrations of EDTA to evaluate a change on these parameters. The mean values for each concentration were calculated, and at optimal concentration of 10%, PCV was 0.44±1.4, TWBC was 5.6±1.6 x 109/L and platelet was 224±34 x 109/L. It was observed that at 6% and 8% concentration, there were no significant effects of EDTA on these parameters, whereas at 12% and 14% concentration, significant changes were observed on these parameters at probability level p<0.05. This study therefore advocates strict adherence to 10% concentration of EDTA.
                    Keywords: PCV, TWBC, Platelet, varying concentrations of EDTA.

                    • Intraosseous Myofibroma of the Zygomatic Bone in Pediatric Patient: A Case Report
                      Myofibroma and myofibromatosis are terms used to denote the solitary (myofibroma) or multicentric (myofibromatosis) occurrence of benign neoplasms composed of contractile myoid cells arranged around thin-walled blood vessels. A case is reported of a 7-year-old female patient who presented with a solitary intraosseous myofibroma in the inferolateral aspect of the left orbit. This article describes the clinical, radiographic and histopathological features of an intraosseous myofibroma in a female child. Solitary myofibromas are rare in the orbit. Their rapid growth and bony destruction can mimic malignant tumors. Complete excision with close follow-up is the preferred treatment. Solitary myofibroma should be considered in the differential diagnoses of fibrous tumors with bone destruction in the orbit.
                      Keywords: Intraosseous, zygoma, Myofibroma.