International Journal of Medical Science and Dental Research

Volume 2 Issue 3 (May-June 2019)

    • Comparison of Clinical and Laboratory Manifestations of Enteroviral Meningitis in Adults and Children
      TThe study included 42 patients with enteroviral meningitis. To confirm the enteroviral etiology of serous meningitis, the polymerase chain reaction method was used with identification of ribonucleic acid of enteroviruses in the feces and cerebrospinal fluid, followed by the determination of 71 types of enterovirus. The work was carried out within the framework of an open cohort study of the Joint EURO/STF Small Grants Program, aimed at implementing programs to combat infectious diseases. The aim of the study was to compare the clinical and laboratory parameters in adults and children with enterovirus meningitis, as well as to determine their possible connection with 71 types of enterovirus. The enterovirus etiology of serous meningitis is confirmed in all patients, however, 71 genotypes of enterovirus were not detected in any case. Enteroviral meningitis in children had more pronounced clinical symptoms due to the more frequent occurrence of nausea and vomiting (p <0.05), Kernig's positive symptom (p = 0.03), neutrophilic pleocytosis (p = 0.004) and low incidence of meningeal dissociation symptoms (p = 0.04) in combination with other manifestations of enterovirus infection, such as rash (7.4%) and enteritis (3.7%).
      Keywords: enteroviral infection, enteroviral meningitis.

      • Primary Large Intramuscular Hydatid Cyst in the Thigh
        Hydatid disease is a parasitic infestation caused by Echinococcusgranulosus. It occurs frequently in liver and lung. Hydatid disease of the soft tissue is uncommon.Usually, intramuscular hydatid cysts are secondary, resulting from the spread of cysts from other areas either spontaneously or after operations for hydatid cysts in other regions. We present an unusual case of a primary hydatid cyst found in the right thigh of a65-year-old male, presented witha large painless mass in theantero-lateral aspect of the right thigh for15 years. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging examinations revealed multilocular intramuscular cyst in the anterior aspect of his right thigh, and no disease at any other location. The entire lesion was surgically removed, and macroscopic and microscopic histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of intramuscular hydatid cyst.
        Keywords: Hydatid disease, Echinococcosis, Cyst, Thigh mass, Intramuscularcyst.

        • Ossification of Ligamentum Flavum: Arare Cause of Mylopathy in Saudi Patient
          Ossification of ligamentum flavum (OLF) is a well-known pathology causing myelopathy, although it is a rare disease. The most commonly affected population is from the Far East and mainly Japanese. However, few reports and studies have shown the prevalence of the disease all over the world. Ossification of the ligamentum flavum (OLF) occurs mostly in adult males, with a possibleassociation with obesity and type 2 diabetes, typically in the thoracolumbar spine where it may contribute to neurological deficits. We report the case of a 45-year-old Saudi female patient presenting with signs of progressive myelopathy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed T9-T11 OLF with severe narrowing. A decompressive laminectomy with flavectomy was recommended to decrease the compressive symptoms but the patient refused the operation.
          Keywords: Myelopathy, ossification of ligamentum flavum, thoracic spinal cord.

          • How Falooda Ice Cream lovingAffect The levels of Glucose in Urine?
            Glucose that is necessary for giving the instant energy to our body and brain that is present in fruits and milk and other foods that we eat in our daily life. If value of glucose in urine is o.6 mmol/L it may be considered normal. The main cause of glucose in urine is urinary infection which caused by the bacterial infection. Improper function of kidneys leads to leakage of glucose into urine the reason behind itsfailure of kidney by eating too much sugar or bacterial infection. High levels of glucose in blood is called hyperglycemia and in urine is glycosuria.The things that are required to performed the urine tests are gloves, strip, container, sample of urine and chart labelled with value of substances.It was deduced that falooda ice cream does not affect the level of glucose in urine.
            Keywords: Glycosuria, hyperglycaemia, Trouble seeing, Basil seeds and diabetes

            • Cannon’s Disease a Rare Genodermatosis - Case Report with Brief Review of Literature
              White sponge nevus (WSN) is a rare hereditary dyskeratotic hyperplasia of mucous membranes. It is an autosomal dominant disorder. We report a case of WSN in a 18-year-old male with a history of familial involvement. A white patch with no erythema or other structural abnormalities was observed, which confirmed the diagnosis of WSN histopathologically.
              Keywords: Dyskeratosis, white lesion, white sponge nevus.

              • Chronic pain in the elderly: prevalence and management
                This is a review article, showing the prevalence of chronic pain in elderly patients, its main location and its non-pharmacological and pharmacological management.
                Keywords: chronic pain,elderly, pharmacological treatment

                • Morel- Lavallée Lesion: Post Traumatic Lesion That Requires Special Attention
                  Morel-Lavallee lesions are closed degloving soft tissue injuries which occur because of trauma and in which the skin and subcutaneous tissue are separated from superficial fascia. This shear trauma results in creation of a potential space filled with serosanguinous fluid, blood and necrotic fat. We discuss a case of 42-year-old female with history of trauma one week back, who presented with elongated swelling over the postero-lateral aspect of her left thigh. Local examination showed fluctuating fluid collection. MRI showed variable intensity fluid collection in a potential space between the subcutaneous tissue and deep fascia in her left thigh. Percutaneous decompression and evacuation of the collection with systemic antibiotic therapy resulted in rapid improvement.
                  Keywords: Closed gloving injury, Mellado and Bencardino classification, Morel-Lavallee lesion, Percutaneous drainage.

                    Hypertension is predictive of cognitive impairment. Elevated blood pressure, obesity, and high cholesterol collectively lead to complications including decline in cognitive ability. The present study was designed to explore the factors effecting cognitive impairment and memory loss among hypertensive patients in twin cities of Pakistan. A descriptive cross-sectional study design was used. A pre-validated data collection tool i.e. Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) questionnaire, which is a practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients was distributed to a sample of 384 hypertensive patients. After data collection the data was cleaned, coded and statistically analyzed using SPSS version 21. Out of 384 respondents, 73.4% (n = 282) were males while 26.6% (n = 102) were females. About stages of disease, 45.8% (n = 176) were categorized in stage I disease while 54.2% (n = 208) were in stage II. Out of 384 hypertensive patients, 31.5% (n = 121) had normal cognition level, 53.4% (n = 204) had mild cognitive decline and 15.4% (n = 59) showed moderate cognitive decline. Significant difference (p ≥ 0.05) among different variables such as age, gender, qualification, smoking status, occupation, stages of hypertension and income with cognitive impairment was observed. The present study concluded that majority of the hypertensive patients showed mild cognitive impairment and memory loss. Cognitive impairment and memory loss was more common among stage II hypertensive patients with CAD or diabetes. Increasing age, low education and qualification level also have negative impact on cognition and memory among hypertensive patients. Patients using beta-blockers had more cognitive decline as compared to those on other antihypertensive therapies.
                    Keywords: Cognitive impairment, memory loss, hypertension, Pakistan