International Journal of Medical Science and Dental Research

Volume 2 Issue 6 (November-December 2019)

    • The level of knowledge and attitude about menopause and hormonal replacement therapy among 40- 60 years females attending primary health care centers at Makkah Al-Mukarramah, 2018. Cross-sectional study
      Menopause is defined as 12 consecutive months of amenorrhea without any other obvious pathological or physiological cause. HRT is an effective management for menopausal symptoms.
      OBJECTIVES:To assess the knowledge and attitudes towards menopause and hormonal replacement therapy among 40- 60 years females attending primary health care centers at MakkahAl-Mukarramah, 2018.
      SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study in three primary health care centres (PHCCs) selected by random clustered sampling techniqueamong a female age group 40- 60 years attending the general clinic of PHCCs in MakkahAl-Mukarramah, KSA. Aninterviewed questionnaire was utilized for data collection.
      RESULTS:A total of 269 women participated in the study. More than a half reported pre-menopausal. The mean knowledge about menopause score percentage was 75.58 = ±17.75. Regarding the knowledge about symptoms of menopause, ―Mood Swings‖ was reported by the majority, followed by ―Feeling more tired than usual‖. On the awareness part the highest agreement was for statements ―Menopause occurs when menstruation stops‖. There was significant difference in the mean knowledge percentage for menopausal statusand marital status (p= 0.040).The mean attitude score was 2.05 with S.D.± 0.26 indicating a neutral attitude towards menopause among these women.There were statistically significant differences in means of the attitude score with menopausal status and educational level (p = 0.009 and p = 0.023 respectively). Assessment of knowledge about HRT showed that only 18.2% of the participants were aware about HRT as atreatment for menopausal symptoms.

      CONCLUSION: The study revealed low to average knowledge about menopause. There was a neutral attitude towards menopause.

      • The Effect and the determinants of Behavioral and Motivational therapy among Children with Enuresis in Kindergarten, Makkah Al-Mukarramah,Saudi Arabia, 2018 A randomized control trial
        There are different strategies in the management of enuresis can be usedby parents using one or combinationof interventions including behavioral, motivational intervention, enuresisalarm and medications.
        Objective: To measure the effect of behavioral and motivational therapy in improving the enuresis and factors associated with that among the intervention group compared with the control group in kindergarten in Makkah Al-Mukarramah, 2018.
        Methodology: Randomized control trial was carried out among children (3-6 years) attending kindergarten. The control group includes enuretic children treated with behavioral therapy while the intervention group treated with behavioral therapy and motivational therapy (star chart). The child was considered improved if he/she has zero wetting per week for 2 consecutive weeks.
        Results: Eighty-two enuretic children were included in the study. The response rates were 73.8% and 85% at 3rd month among both intervention and control groups, respectively p>0.05. The improvement in enuresis was 16.5% among the participants in first month, whereas it increased to 35.6% in the second month, then slightly declined inthe third month 35.4%.There was no statistically significant difference between both groups regarding the improvement in enuresis. Concerning the factors associated with improvement in enuresis, only two factors were identified; the economic status of the child’s family p<0.05 and frequency of nocturnal enuresis at baseline p<0.04.
        Conclusion: This study revealed that motivational therapy did not add to the improvement produced by behavioral therapy.

        Keywords: behavioral therapy, Enuresis, Improvement, kindergarten, motivational therapy.

        • Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of medicinally important Lactarius deliciosus
          Fungi, which are of particular importance in the ecosystem because of their biodegradable properties, are known to be an important source of biologically active components of both food and medical value. Fungal extracts are used in the treatment and prevention of many diseases. Lactarius deliciosus mushroom is also known as Kanlica mushroom and is an edible mushroom with high nutritional value. The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of water, ethanol and chloroform extracts of Lactarius deliciosus. Antioxidant activities of the extracts were determined by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazase) method. In addition, total antioxidant status of mushroom extracts was determined spectrophotometrically. Antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were determined by disc diffusion method. The water and ethanol extracts of Lactarius deliciosus were found to have total antioxidant and DPPH activity. And also antimicrobial activity was determined on microorganism. The most susceptible strain was P. aeruginosa and the most resistant strain was E. coli. Mushrooms are highly important due to their properties such as fat, vitamins, carbohydrates and proteins. It is important to evaluate these fungi in terms of antioxidant and antimicrobial activity.

          Keywords: Antimicrobial Activity, Antioxidant Activity, Lactarius deliciosus