International Journal of Medical Science and Dental Research

Volume 3 Issue 3 (July-August 2020)

    • Evaluation of oral health and dental caries status among haemophilic children in Trivandrum, South India
      Aim : The present study was conducted to assess the oral health and dental caries status of children with Hemophilia and compared to controls. Materials and Methods: Questionnaires were distributed to parents of both the groups to assess factors like dietary habits, brushing frequency of the children, educational level and the dental hygiene habits of parents. The Decayed, Missed and Filled tooth surfaces (DMFT, DMFS, dmft, dmfs) scores of permanent and primary dentition were recorded in 42 children with Hemophilia in the age range of 6 to 12 years and compared with 50 healthy children in the same age group. Data was analyzed using Chi-square, Kruskal Wallis and Independent t-test. Results: The brushing frequency of haemophilic children and their parents was found to be less when compared with the control group. Patients of the study group were significantly more caries prone and had poor oral hygiene when compared to controls (p< 0.05). Conclusion: It can be concluded by this study that children with Hemophilia had a significantly higher prevalence of dental caries and poor oral hygiene when compared to controls which might be attributed to the lack of proper oral hygiene habits and lack of motivation of parents regarding the importance of good oral hygiene.

      Keywords: Children, Hemophilia, Oral health.

      • Biological Effects of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF- α) in Systemic Inflammation Abstract:
        Aim: The purpose of this article review is to investigate the biological effects of TNF-α in systemic inflammation at moderate levels. TNF-α is a product of macrophages, one of the body's defense systems that is active in the presence of a bacterial infection. Background. TNF-α plays a role in host defense for bacterial, viral and parasitic infections. TNF-α is produced by macrophages and is activated by T cell lymphocytes, antigens, NK cells, and mast cells. TNF-α is usually not detected in healthy individuals but is often found in conditions of inflammation and infection in the serum. TNF-α works against leukocytes and endothelium, induces acute inflammation at low levels because TNF-α is a strong pyrogen. TNF-α plays a role in systemic inflammation at moderate levels. TNF-α causes pathological abnormalities in high levels of septic shock, because TNF-α is cytotoxic. Riview Results. In the review of this article we get results about the biological effects of TNF-α on systemic inflammation at moderate levels and their role in the humoral and sesluler immune systems. Conclusion TNF-α has a biological effect on systemic inflammation at moderate levels and has a strong role in the humoral and cellular immune systems.

        Keywords: Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-α), Humoral and Cellular Immunism, Systemic Inflammation

        • Oral implications related to COVID-19: What Can we expect in Times of Pandemic? Abstract:
          Objective:: to report the drugs most used in the treatment of COVID-19 and their possible adverse effects on the oral cavity so that the dental surgeon is aware of their role in the treatment of secondary manifestations of COVID-19 and is prepared to handle and treat the cured patient of COVID-19 who presents such manifestations. Materials and methods: through a survey of the pubmed and scielo database, we conducted a search for papers that included current approaches on COVID-19, its tropism by the salivary glands and epithelium of the oral mucosa, as well as its handling and oral manifestations of drugs used to treat COVID-19.
          Results: the drugs used to treat COVID-19 include drugs known to manage other diseases, such as antivirals, corticosteroids, antiparasitic, antibiotics, among which the oral manifestations induced by their use are well founded in the literature.
          Conclusion: given the above, it is concluded that the dental surgeon needs to be prepared to handle the cured patient of COVID-19 because they used medications that can induce oral injuries

          Keywords: coronavirus infection, salivary glands, oral mucosa, medicines, intensive care unit

          • Qualitative study: External Factors Affecting a Mother to Maintain Exclusive Breastfeeding Abstract:
            Aim.: The purpose of this article is to explore the factors that influence mothers to initiate and maintain exclusive breastfeeding. Background. Optimal breastfeeding is the most effective and cost-effective survival strategy and has the potential to reduce child mortality by up to 13% in developing countries [2], [3]. Optimal breastfeeding consists of early initiation within one hour of birth, exclusive breastfeeding from birth to 6 months of life and breastfeeding until the age of 2 years or more [4]. Materials and Methods. This study uses a qualitative design. The experience of breastfeeding informants will be collected and summarized comprehensively and reported narratively. This research was conducted through a Focus Group Discussion (FGD) to mothers of infants aged 5-6 months in four puskesmas areas in Makassar City in January 2020. This research focuses on exploring the knowledge, practice and decision making related to exclusive breastfeeding. Result. Most of the mothers have received information about exclusive breastfeeding, but there are still some mothers who have never received such information. Mothers who have heard exclusive breastfeeding information still have different perceptions about the length of exclusive breastfeeding given. Certainly the mother does not understand the duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Conclusions. Breastfeeding is an important global public health problem. This review shows that knowledge about exclusive breastfeeding, understanding of breastfeeding practices and social support (family, husband and health workers) are factors that can influence the success of exclusive breastfeeding. Starting and maintaining breastfeeding is still a challenge for mothers today so that an understanding of exclusive breastfeeding, regulations that support breastfeeding, and social support can support breastfeeding success.

            Keywords: Exclusive Breastfeeding, Endorsement, Factors Affecting

            • Anti-Inflammatory Potential Of Extract Of Nothopanax Fruticosum (L.) Miq By Method Of Erythrocyte Membrane Stability Abstract:
              Lysosome can secrete enzyme which can induce the occurence of inflammation. Lysosome membrane is an analogue with erythrocyte membrane of human. This study is aimed to decide the potential of anti-inflammatory of extract of Nothopanax fruticosum (L.) Miq) seen from its ability to stabilize erythrocyte membrane. By method of erythrocyte membrane stability. This study is started by blood intake and erythrocyte suspension is made. Erythrocyte suspension is divided into 3 groups of treatment namely negative control, positive control (Natrium diclofenac), and test solution with concentration of 25, 50, 75, 100, and 125 ppm, then set aside for 30 minutes and centrifuged. Supernatant is measured by absorbance using spectrophotometer UV-Vis at wavelength 560 nm. From the result of the study it obtains that concentration of 125 ppm gives highest inhibition percentage at 80,64%.

              Keywords: santi-inflammatory, Nothopanax fruticosum (L.) Miq), erythrocyte membrane stability

              • Improving the Access of the Indonesian Community to Qualified Health Services Abstract:
                Health development is faced with a variety of important issues including health status disparities; double burden of disease; quality, equity and affordability of health services; community protection in the field of medicine and food; and clean and healthy life behavior. Methods: The method used in this short communication is descriptive-comparative where we review Safety Culture in Indonesian Health Services in five aspects, namely Health Services for the Poor, nutritional problems that are never complete, Extraordinary Events of Communicable Diseases, Poor health in Disaster areas, and finally the number of health workers still lacking and comparing the problem of Human Resources Health problems in Indonesia according to WHO (2011) and the Indonesian Ministry of Health (2009). Results: The results obtained in this brief communication are that we get new information in the form of problems encountered in Safety Culture in Indonesian Health Services, examples of cases that occur, policies taken by the government in handling them and the results obtained after the implementation of the policy. All of these are reviewed in five aspects. Conclusion: The conclusion we can take in this brief communication is that health problems that occur in Indonesia have not been resolved even though the government has implemented policies related to these problems but has not been resolved to date

                Keywords: qualified health services, safety culture, Indonesian community