International Journal of Medical Science and Dental Research

Volume 3 Issue 5 (November-December 2020)

    • Chronic Granulomatous Disease in Libya
      Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare inherited disorder of the innate immune system, characterized by a greatly increased susceptibility to severe infections, early in childhood at different sites. We aimed to study multisystem clinical manifestations of CGD in Libyan children. Our study was retrospective, it included CGD patients seen at Pediatric hospital immunology department in Benghazi, over 7 years. Out of 35 CGD patients, 66% was males, 94% had onset of disease <1 year of life, and 60% of their parents were relatives. Reticuloendothelial system was involved in 94% followed by skin (91%), respiratory (83%), gastrointestine (69%) and bone (29%). This study is one of the largest series on CGD from north Africa and Arabic region reflecting the different modes of inheritance, as well as the wide and variable clinical manifestations of CGD.

      • Wastewater-based epidemiology in coping with COVID-19 in Brazil: implications for Primary Health Care actions as an alternative for community monitoring and diagnosis Abstract:
        The wastewater-based epidemiology could subsidize regional actions to contain the SARS-CoV-2 in Primary Health Care (PHC), allowing anticipating the mobilization of services in areas of potential risk. With the information from the sewers, PHC services could organize interventions considering local specificities, in order to enhance their attributes. Sewage Epidemiology would allow being able to monitor spatial and temporal trends, produce results in near-real time (through biosensors), generate information on a population scale, and determine the status of COVID-19 within and among communities. In addition, it would require less public spending compared to clinical testing. Even with the limitations on the optimal coverage of sanitation services in all cities, Sewage emerges as another point to be considered at this pandemic time, presenting itself as a tool that can provide a collective diagnosis in the communities, adding to the strengthening of health, epidemiological and environmental surveillance systems in the country.

        Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring; Primary Health Care.

        • The Vital Roles of Tele dentistry during the Current Situation of COVID-19 Pandemic ABSTRACT:
          Dentistry involves routine close face-to-face interaction with patients, and during the COVID-19 pandemic, it has mostly been suspended. Teledentistry can offer an innovative solution to resume dental practics during this pandemic. In this review, we provide a brief overview of applications of teledentistry. Articles on teledentistry, relevant to this review, were searched and consulted from PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane database. Teledentistry is the remote facilitating of dental treatment, guidance, and education via the use of information technology instead of direct face-to-face contact with patients. Teleconsultation, telediagnosis, teletriage, and telemonitoring are subunits of teledentistry that have important functions relevant to dental practice. There are many challenges for acceptance of teledentistry by the dentists as well as patients, which need to be addressed urgently. This review concludes that teledentistry can make it easier to connect dental practices with outreach programs; this allows dental practice to engage in social responsibility and community services. In addition to outreach, dental professionals can improve their practice by enhancing relationships with specialists and consultants as they engage with them more efficiently, and may connect them to the patients when necessary.

          Keywords: Teledentistry, Telehealth, Telemedicine, COVID-19, Coronavirus

          • Antioxidant Activity, Toxicity Effect and Phytochemical Screening of Some Brown Algae Padina australis Extracts from Dutungan Island of South Sulawesi Indonesia ABSTRACT:
            Brown algae is one of the bioactive compound sources producing secondary metabolites as antioxidant. Padina australis is a brown algae (Phaeophyceae) specific in Dutungan island Barru, South Sulawesi suspected of secondary metabolic compound. This study aims to determine the level of toxicity and antioxidant active compounds of Padina australis. Extraction of active compounds in P.australis was carried out by maceration method using a solven of methanol, ethyl acetate, and n-hexane. Each extract was tested for its toxicity against Artemia salina L and DPPH as radicals. The results showed that the toxicity test of methanol, ethyl acetate, and n-hexane extract against A. salina L obtained LC50 values, respectively 785.03 ppm, 73.3 ppm and 300 ppm. Antioxidant activity of methanol, ethyl acetate and n-hexane extract with IC50 values at 446.88 ppm, 259.48 ppm, and 495.67 ppm.

            Keywords: Antioxidant, Toxicity, P.australis, Brown algae, Phytochemical screening

            • Case report: spontaneous colonic perforation ABSTRACT:
              Herein I report a case of middle-aged man with spontaneous perforation of the colon without any identifiable systemic cause (on screening the patient pre & postoperatively), who was operated upon and we found aperforation in the sigmoid colon without finding a local cause.

              Keywords: colonic perforation,Peritonitis.

              • Pulp Revascularization: A Review ABSTRACT:
                Endodontic treatment of immature teeth is challenging to the clinicians because of the open apex of the root canal. The conventional treatment can control infection, while the root development usually remains impaired. Therefore, a regenerative endodontic procedure, the pulp revascularization method has emerged in which a new tissue is expected to be formed from the tissue present in the teeth, allowing for the continuation of the development of the root and at the same time reducing the chances of root fracture during the obturation.


                • Patient awareness regarding the availability of acute dental treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic in eastern Slovakia ABSTRACT:
                  With the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, health care selection also began on the basis of its necessity in an effort to break the chain of infection transmission. Routine and planned dental care thus became unavailable at the time of the strictest measures, and only emergency care was provided. During the period of gradual relaxation of measures, we performed an evaluation of patients' awareness of measures related to acute dental treatment. Our findings show that, when such events occur, it is necessary to supplement the guidelines for healthcare providers with direct regional guidelines for the population, especially for general medicine, paediatrics and dentistry. The availability of health care and the timely management of acute health problems contribute to reducing complications and hospitalizations, including dental cases.

                  Keywords: COVID-19, dental treatment, emergency treatment, preventive examination, telemedicine, triaging

                  • Efficacy of Treatment of Patients With Chronic Dacryocystitis And Features of the Late Postoperative Period ABSTRACT:
                    Chronic dacryocystitis is a fairly common pathology of the nasolacrimal ducts. The study included 109 patients with chronic dacryocystitis, who were examined and restored lacrimal passage by performing endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy. In the late postoperative period, the severity of lacrimation was determined by the P.L.Munk scale, the degree of dacryostoma imaging was assessed, and lacrimal function was determined. One year after endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy, the final efficacy of treatment was evaluated. Significantly better results were in the group of patients who used the developed method of endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy. It was found that the lacrimal implant and preserved mucosal flaps have a negative effect on the restoration of tearing in the late postoperative period. Deterioration of lacrimal function and recurrence of the disease most often occur from the 3rd to the 6th month after undergoing dacryocystorhinostomy, during which time patients need active monitoring.

                    Keywords: chronic dacryocystitis, endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy

                    • Management of Odontological Emergencies for Pregnant Women ABSTRACT:
                      The emergency treatment for women during pregnancy requires a reasonable approach. Controlling the pharmacopoeia is necessarywhen prescribing drugs, to avoid repercussions on boththe mother and the fetus. In this article, the authors take stock of the medicines authorized for pregnant women, and the course of action to be taken by the dental surgeon in case of an emergency therapeutic act.

                      Keywords: Pregnancy, pregnant woman, dental treatment, x-rays, dental anesthesia

                      • Correlation between Chest Pain and ECG Finding in Emergency Room ABSTRACT:
                        Background: Chest pain is a common symptom presented in Emergency Room (ER) patients. It can be due to various disorders, including life-threatening, to self-limiting.Therefore, it is essential to know the frequencies of cardiac problems related to chest pain. Objective: The study aimed to know the association of ECG findings with chest pain in patients admitted to the ER of the Coronary Care Unit (CCU) in Sulaimani. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional study included 659 patients with chest pain admitted to the ER of the CCU in Sulaimani from January 1st, 2020, to February 1st, 2020. The inclusion criteria included all the patients who presented with chest pain and had an ECG. The patients' ages and gender were recorded. Also, the findings on the ECG were identified by the cardiologists on duty and the researchers themselves.Results: The mean ± SD (standard deviation) of patients' ages was 61.3±4.1 years, ranging from 18 to 85, and most of the patients (60%) were between 45 and 75. The males' frequency was 53.6% compared to 46.4% females with an M: F (male to female) ratio of 1.15:1. The association of ECG findings with age groups of the patients who attended ER was statistically significant (p-value = 0.043). However, the association of ECG findings with gender was statistically none significant. Conclusions: It is not only the clinical evaluation and ECG findings of patients that help in the diagnosis; the physician's experience and routines performed in our ER are also significant.

                        Keywords: Chest pain; Electrocardiography (ECG); Emergency Room (ER); Sulaimani

                        • Critical Analysis of Consumption of Drug in Consultant Patients in Dental Emergencies Service ABSTRACT:
                          Objective:The objective of this study is to describe and analyze theprescription, self-medication and use of medicinal plants in patients consulting in the consultation and dental emergency department of the University Hospital Centre of Casablanca (CHU Ibn Rochd). Methods:This is a descriptive, monocentric, prospectiveobservational study conducted at the Ibn Rochd University Hospital in Casablanca for two months (October 26 to December 18, 2018). The data collection was in the form of an anonymous questionnaire, as well as its analysis by Microsoft0 Office EXCEL and IBM SPSS statistics version software. Results:The study involved 200 predominantly female patients(61.5%), the most common reasons for consultation in the dental emergency department were oral pain, oral abscess, trauma and dental bleeding. A total of 20 International Non-proprietary Name (INNs) were found in 192 drug prescriptions compared to 19 INNs by self-medication. Dentists prescribe 2.32±1.25 drugs per patient to which were added on average 1.27±0.73 drugs taken simultaneously by self-medication in 87 (43.5%) patients. The most frequently prescribed therapeutic classes used by self-medication were ATBs, analgesics, corticosteroids, antiseptics and NSAIDs. Patients had at least one non-compliant drug in 7.29% of prescriptions versus 27.58% by self-medication, of which 3 prescriptions were an absolute contraindication versus 2 cases by self-medication. A total of 11 drug interactions (78.57%) were mainly found by prescription compared to 16 cases of interactions (66.66%) found by self-medication, with a distribution according to the severity of contraindications, not recommended drug interactions, drug interactions requiring precautions for use and drug interactions to be considered. Conclusion:The control of drug use in the dental consultation andemergency department is essential. Patients' awareness of the risk of self-medication should be raised to avoid second effects and drugs interactions. The realization of the electronic patient file for the follow-up of the medication intake.

                          Keywords: Dental emergencies service, Drug, Drug interactions, Self medication.

                          • Discovery of Novel Probiotics That Can Support Gut Microbiota ABSTRACT:
                            Today's stressful living conditions, high consumption of refined food, unbalanced diet and irregular use of antibiotics adversely affect the human body and microbiota. In the study, it was aimed to isolate probiotic microorganisms from local fermented milk products (white cheese and tulum cheese) and to investigate some properties of these microorganisms in order to be used as nutritional support. Microorganisms were isolated by culture method. They were identified by carbohydrate fermentation and molecular tests. Acid-bile tolerance, exopolysaccharide production, antimicrobial activities and resistance profile against some antibiotics were investigated. Considering the probiotic properties investigated, it is predicted that 5 Lactobacillus spp. strains meet the desired criteria and can be used in the development of new products. In order to support the gastrointestinal microbiota affected by adverse conditions and to provide flora balance, it is important to supplement with superior probiotic products. It is very important to carry out further studies with the probiotic bacteria we obtained from our study and to include these bacteria in probiotic product ingredients in terms of microbiota support.

                            Keywords: Gut microbiota, Probiotics