International Journal of Medical Science and Dental Research

Volume 4 Issue 5 (September-October 2021)

      Preeclampsia refers to a systemic syndrome characterized by extensive maternal endothelial dysfunction clinically accompanied by hypertension, edema, and proteinuria during pregnancy. It occurs in about 3% to 5% of pregnant women, usually in the last trimester and is more common in primiparas (women who are pregnant for the first time. Some of these women progress to convulsions (eclampsia). Other complications stem from systemic endothelial dysfunction include acute renal failure and pulmonary edema.About 10% of women with severe preeclampsia have hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets, which is called hemolysis, elevated liver enzyme levels, and low platelet levels (HELLP syndrome). Pregnancy can trigger hypertension in women who were previously normotensive or can exacerbate the disease in women who previously had hypertension. The cause of both cases is unknown. Generalized edema, proteinuria, or both often accompany hypertension precipitated or exacerbated by pregnancy. This hypertension can be accompanied by seizures, especially if ignored [1]. Hypertensive disorders that complicate pregnancy are common and are one of the elements that cause a large number of maternal deaths in the United States in addition to bleeding and infection, which continue to be. Most of the poor pregnancy outcomes associated with hypertension can be prevented with good prenatal monitoring and treatment if needed. Pregnancy hypertension is clinically pregnancy-induced hypertension. it was found that the correlation between maternal age and VCAM-1 levels did not have a correlation. These results were obtained by controlling for independent variables (systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure) and intermediate variables (number of pregnancies). When statistical tests were carried out without controlling for systolic blood pressure, while other variables were controlled, there was a significant correlation between maternal age and VCAM-1 levels. Then the statistical test was carried out again by controlling only the systolic blood pressure variable and the other variables were not, then the obtained correlation was also not significant from maternal age and VCAM-1 levels.

      Keywords: vascular cell adhesion, VCAM-1, blood pressure, preeclamsia patient.

      • Efficacy of empiric antibiotic therapy-An institutional based study ABSTRACT:
        Most purulent orofacial infections are of odontogenic origin. Empiric antibiotics were administered before the culture and sensitivity test results were obtained and specific antibiotics were administered based on the culture and sensitivity test results. But resistance was a challenging problem all throughout along with development of more virulent strains of microorganisms which were more infectious and resistant to many known antibiotics. Objective: To identify the causative micro-organisms responsible for orofacial infections and to evaluate the resistance against empirical antibiotics used in the treatment of space infections. Method: 142 patients with head and neck fascial space infections of odontogenic origin were randomly taken; the pus samples and aspirates were collected aseptically from patients for microbiological study. Results: In this study the most common aerobic organism isolated was streptococcus viridians (34.49%), Amoxicillin was the most commonly used empirical drug in all cases and showed highest resistance (96.55%) for all the organisms. But linezolid (100%) was sensitive to all the organisms. Clindamycin (100%) appeared sensitive to the entire aerobic group.

        Conclusion:: Knowledge about the pathologic flora involved in head and neck infection in a locality and their sensitivity and resistance to commonly used antibiotics will help the clinician in administering appropriate antibiotics.

      • Management of impacted permanent maxillary second molar: A rare case report ABSTRACT:
        Horizontal impaction of permanent maxillary second molar is a very rare occurrence with a prevalence rate of 0.08%. There are many etiological factors for the impaction of a tooth. For a successful outcome, a pediatric dentist should be able to identify the etiological factor, give a proper diagnosis and then provide a better treatment. This case, reports a case of horizontally impacted maxillary left second molar and the ectopic eruption of adjacent third molar in maxillary sinus.

        Keywords:: Impaction, Ectopic eruption, Surgical extraction

      • Evaluation of Irradiation Capabilities of Modified Laser Fiber Optic for Endodontic Applications ABSTRACT:
        The usage of laser in endodontic application has a great potential because of laser energy efficiency in disinfection but the limitations of the possibility of directing of laser beam to any direction rather than forward direction led to many attempts of modifications of the fiber optic tips to direct the laser beam toward the walls of the root canal. In this study we proposed a modification protocols of the fiber optic tips to remove the cladding from the core of fiber optic in specific window design to allow for the laser beam to skip in lateral emission to be used in endodontic applications. This modification led to increase the width of spread in lateral emissions of laser beam by range (207% - 368%) and the total area around the fiber optic by range (96% - 164%) in in comparison to unmodified one.

        Keywords:: Endodontic, Fiber optics, Laser, Lateral emission, Side firing.

      • Effect of adding nano titanium dioxide and chitosan on compressive strength of glass ionomer cement ABSTRACT:
        OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the compressive strength of glass ionomer cement incorporating nano-titanium dioxide as well as chitosan.
        MATERIALAND METHODS:The samples were prepared in six groups, including non-modifed GIGs (NMGIC, n = 12), chitosan incorporated GICs (CHGIC, n = 12),3% nanotitanium incorporated GICs (nanoTio2GIC, n = 12), 5% nanotitanium incorporated GICs (nanoTio2GIC, n = 12), chitosan/3% nanotitanium incorporated GICs (CH/nanoTio2/GICs, n = 12),chitosan/5% nanotitanium incorporated GICs (CH/nanoTio2/GICs, n = 12) .The compressive strength was evaluated using a universal testing machine. Data were analyzed using the ANOVA and Tukey tests. Statistical significance was set at the 0.05 probability level.
        RESULTS:With the dual-modification, a significant improvement in thecompressive strength was found.
        CONCLUSION: Under the limitations of the present investigation, the following conclusion can be drawn:5% wt TiO2 NP modified GIC powder with the chitosan modified GIC liquid (Group 5) exhibited the highestcompressive strength.

      • Less Invasive Surfactant Administration (LISA) in a Term Newborn with Moderate Meconium Aspiration Syndrome – A case report ABSTRACT:
        One of the indications for surfactant replacement therapy has been moderate to severe meconium aspiration syndrome. In neonates who require high ventilator settings, it is usually administered via endotracheal tube. Less invasive methods of surfactant administration have not been studied in neonates with MAS. We present a case of meconium aspiration syndrome in which surfactant was administered via transtracheal catheter, a less invasive method. The neonate showed rapid clinical and radiological improvement, resulting in a short hospital stay.

        Keywords: LISA, MAS, meconium, neonate, respiratory distress, surfactant