International Journal of Medical Science and Dental Research

Volume 4 Issue 6 (November-December 2021)

    • Leptine and its Participation in the Development of Obesity
      Background: Obesity is a chronic, multifactorial disease that increases significantly in the world population, affecting both adults and children and adolescents. In addition, it can lead to developing other diseases. Leptin is a hormone that is produced in various tissues of the body, adipose tissue being the protagonist in this pathology; giving it great relevance in terms of its participation as a producer of substances that make it an active tissue.
      Methodology: A narrative review was carried out, in which different databases were used, in English and Spanish languages, obtaining a total of 21 articles, 15 of which met the inclusion criteria.
      Results: Obesity is generated due to an energy imbalance, between caloric intake and expenditure. Likewise, leptin varies, according to its intravascular concentration, it modulates food consumption, responding to fasting states and the presence of glucose, so that when a deficit of this occurs, obesity can arise either in isolation or in concomitance with other factors that also induce its development.
      Conclusions: Leptin is a hormone that is produced in adipose tissue, which has various functions in the body. It is currently known to play an important role in the development of obesity. However, its mechanism of action must be further studied and elucidated so that as a drug many more results can be generated in favor of the treatment of this pathology.

      Keywords:: Leptin, obesity, metabolism, adipose

    • The Use of Monolithic Zirconia Restorations for Patients with Bruxism
      Patients with bruxism develop wear of occlusal surfaces of teeth, which may require an extensive rehabilitation. The treatment planning criteria for patients with bruxism involve a wide range of materials and procedures. Introduction of monolithic zirconia ceramics (second generation of zirconia) opened a wide range of full ceramic applications. In fact, monolithic zirconia has a better translucency and preserve adequate strength and toughness. Its lower Alumina content optimally distributed within the material helps maintaining aging stability. Our goal is to give an overview of different properties of monolithic zirconia and its use to treat patients with bruxism.

      Keywords:: zirconia, monolithic zirconia restorations, bruxism, full ceramic

    • Soft Tissue Analysis of Chin in Patients with Different Mandibular Divergent Patterns in Himachali Population
      Abstract:Introduction : The soft tissue of the face plays an important role in facial esthetics. Lower third of the face constitutes the lips and the chin throat region and has a unique impact on the facial dynamics. With continuing growth, the chin tends to assume forward position relative to the superior aspects of the skeletal face and the mandible grows from the more retruded to a less retruded position.. Objective : Determination of STC thickness and its relation with mandibular divergence. Material and Methods: Pretreatment lateral cephalograms of 150 subjects (80males 70 females) aged 18–45 years. On basis of mandibular plane angle 4 groups, Low angle, Medium-Low, Medium-High, High angle were formed. The STC thickness was measured at 3 levels: Pog-Pog', Gn-Gn', Me-Me'. Results:The analysis of variance and post-hoc test were also used to compare the studied parameters separately among groups. the STC was more in males. STC thickness was greater in the low-angle group, and gradually decreases across groups, the least being in the high-angle group.Conclusion: The STC thickness was more in men as comapared to females,STC measurements were less in patients with vertical hyperdivergent pattern and thickness was significantly thinner at Me in cases of hyperdivergent pattern

      Keywords:: chin thickness, facial profile, lateral cephalogram, mandible, mandibular plane angle

    • Posterior Tibial Nerve Stimulation as a Treatment for Constipation
      Abstract:There are various functional disorders present in the digestive system, among them we find constipation affecting 30% of the western population characterized by alterations in defecation presenting a decrease in number and difficulty when performing evacuations generally caused by anatomical, physiological and characteristics of the stool such as consistency, volume and presence of irritants, classified depending on the clinical or anatomical characteristics present where improvements are generally found when changes in eating habits, pharmacological treatment or strengthening of the pelvic floor and second line are applied Treatment involves neuromodulation, which uses low-frequency currents to directly or indirectly stimulate the spinal nerves. It includes regulation of the sacral root nerve and stimulation of the posterior tibial nerve. This technology has two modes of application: percutaneous needle electrode and percutaneous surface electrode acting on neurons that act as facilitators or inhibitors of colonic contractions.

      Keywords:: Constipation, fecal incontinence, tibial nerve stimulation

    • Intra-Articular Osteoid Osteoma As A Cause of Hip Pain
      Abstract:A 16-year-old male patient presented to our clinic with right hip pain that was ongoing for about 2years .The patient visited the outpatient clinic , conservative treatment (including rest, and NSAIDs) was recommended by various different doctors.physical examination, and plain radiography were nonspecific.Early MRI findings shows bone marrow edema, CT done after MRI shows right femoral neck small lucent lesion withlack of the characteristic surrounding sclerosis then we start to think for intrarticular osteoid osteoma later scintigraphy done confirming the diagnosis .

      Keywords:: Osteoid osteoma, lucent lesion, Hip pain.

    • Two Calcium Silicate and Two Calcium Hydroxide- Based Materials Used in Indirect Pulp Capping (In-Vivo Study)
      Abstract:Objective: this study was directed to clinically and radiographically evaluate mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and TheraCal LC as indirect pulp capping (IPC) materials. Patients and Methods: Twenty male patients aged 17–35 years with deep caires in class one in lower molars were randomly divided into two equal groups (n = 10). Group 1: pulp were capped using MTA. Group 2: pulp were capped using TheraCal LC. Clinical evaluation was performed at 1 week, 3, and 6 months after IPC for presence/absence of spontaneous pain, tenderness to percussion, draining sinuses and pulp response to thermal pulp vitality test. Digital periapical radiographs were taken at 1 week, 3, and 6 months after IPC to evaluate the changes in the width of periodontal ligament space and presence/absence of periapical lesion. Results: Clinically, all cases showed criteria of successful treatment except 1case in each group. Statistical analysis revealed no statistically significant difference between both groups (P > 0.05). Radiographically, periapical lesions and the changes in the width of periodontal ligament space were not significantly different between both groups recording (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Clinically and radiographically, MTA and TheraCal LC are favorable materials for IPC.

      Keywords:: indirect pulp capping, mineral trioxide aggregate, TheraCal LC, calcium hydroxide

    • A Study of Neurological and Neuropsychiatric Manifestations Following COVID 19 Vaccination
      Background: Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID - 19) caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus-2(SARSCoV2) has spread worldwide leading to an ongoing pandemic. Vaccination along with practicing social distancing, masks and hand hygiene remain the main strategies for prevention of SARS CoV 2. Globally many vaccines were developed for prevention of the disease. This study aims to find out the neurological and neuropsychiatric events following first dose of Covishield vaccine.
      Materials and methods: A longitudinal study was done among health care workers aged more than 18yrs and who were either faculties or students who received first dose of Covishield vaccine from a tertiary care hospital in Thiruvananthapuram during February – March 2021. A structured questionnaire was administered to collect data at the time of vaccination. The participants were followed up at regular intervals of 8 hours, 24 hours, 48 hours, 72 hours and 5 days through phone calls. Data was entered in MS Excel software and analyzed using SPSS 25.
      Results: The mean age of the study participants was 28.8 (11.26) years. Among the 322 study participants, 70.2% were females and 29.8% were males. Among the 322 study participants, 78.6% had any of the symptoms following first dose of COVID 19 vaccinations and 21.4% had no symptoms following first dose of COVID 19 vaccinations. Tiredness, fever, headache and myalgia were the predominant symptoms reported in this study.
      Conclusion: Anxiety, sadness, depression seizures, double vision, sleep disturbances and giddiness were the reported neuropsychiatric adverse events following COVID 19 vaccination. Covishield vaccine is associated with adverse neuropsychiatric effects even though in a small proportion of participants.

      Keywords:: COVID 19 vaccination, neurological and neuropsychiatric manifestations