International Journal of Medical Science and Dental Research

Volume 6 Issue 2 (March-April 2023)

    • Genitourinary Complications of Schistosomiasis
      Background: Urinary schistosomiasis caused by S. haematobium is a parasitic disease endemic in many parts of tropical Africa, Middle East and South-West Asia and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The genitourinary complications of the disease are organ-specific and result from the immune response of the body to the chronic presence of the trapped eggs in the host tissues. The objective of this review was to elucidate the pathogenesis of the complications of schistosomiasis affecting the urogenital organs and the common treatment modalities.
      Methods: Electronic literature search on PubMed Central, Google Scholar made using such terms as; urinary schistosomiasis, Bilharziasis, urogenital complications, medical treatment, ablative and reconstructive surgeries yielded 125 suitable articles which were incorporated into this review.
      Conclusion: Urinary schistosomiasis is an endemic parasitic disease in many topical countries of Africa and south-west Asia and afflicts millions of subjects. Heavy infestation not adequately treated may result in serious complications that are organ-specific and affect the urogenital system with attendant morbidity and mortality. Preventive strategies are mandatory to reduce these sequalae of the parasitic disease.

      Keywords:: Urinary schistosomiasis, pathogenesis, complications, treatment and prevention.

    • Risk Factors in Women with Abnormal Pap Smears in a Tertiary Health Institution in North-Central Nigeria
      Background: cervical cancer remains an important health problem of women worldwide with a high morbidity and mortality. Most cervical cancers originate from cells infected with human papillomavirus (HPV) which is sexually transmitted. It is a preventable condition and considerable effort goes into detecting and treating the pre-invasive disease. Papanicolaou smear(Pap smear) test for cervical cancer screening is the most utilized and successful approach to cancer screening.
      General Objective: The objective of this study is to determine the risk factors associated with abnormal pap smears among women that present for cervical cancer screening in Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH) North-Central Nigeria.
      Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study of 200 consecutive women who presented for cervical cancer screening at the cancer screening centre of JUTH. Data were collected from the participants using a proforma after obtaining informed consent. The results of the smears obtained were entered in this proforma for each patient and analyzed using EPI-info 3.5.2. The strength of the association between the risk factors and abnormal pap smear results were evaluated using logistic regression analysis and significance is defined as P< 0.05.
      RESULTS: Results of this study shows that 9.5% of the study population had abnormal Pap smears and the commonly diagnosed abnormal type is ASC-US. There was statistically significant relationship between abnormal cytology result and age, number of sexual partners, early age at first sexual intercourse, HIV status and combined oral contraceptive use.
      CONCLUSION: The commonest abnormal Pap smear is ASCUS and more than 80% of the patients got information on cervical cancer screening from their healthcare providers and all women irrespective of their educational status are willing to undergo the screening when given the information.

      Keywords:: Cervical cancer, JUTH, Pap smear, Risk Factor, Screening.

      • Quality of life during and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer
        Breast cancer is a leading malignant disease in women, accounting for 25% of all cancers. In 2020, 2.3 million women were diagnosed with breast cancer. However, it has the highest survival rate in the world, with 7.8 million women surviving 5 years after diagnosis. The research aimed to assess the quality of life of breast cancer patients during and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy using a questionnaire and data from 100 patients in a hospital and 25 in an association, with results presented in tables and analyzed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square and Mann Whitney tests, and Cronbach's alpha. The study found that breast cancer patients who received support from family and friends, as well as those who were part of a support association, reported better quality of life, better sleep, and fewer side effects from therapy, highlighting the importance of emotional support and education about the disease and prevention. The conclusion highlights the importance of motivating patients to speak about their disease, education about cancer prevention, and emotional support from partners, family, and friends. It also emphasizes the impact of reduced quality of life on cancer patients and the importance of support programs and forms of support in improving their quality of life and treatment process.

        Keywords:: breast cancer, chemotherapy, quality of life

        • Education Using Video and E-Booklets Media on the Level of Knowledge about Dental and Mouth Emergency During the Covid-19 Pandemic in High School Students
          Background: In 2020, the CDC released a recommendation to suspend all non-emergency elective procedures. Therefore, the community must have sufficient knowledge about which dental and oral diseases are dental emergencies. Knowledge improvement is required to assist the government and health workers in breaking the chain of COVID-19. One way to enhance this knowledge is through health counseling methods. Purpose: To determine the effectiveness of counseling using video and e-booklets media on the level of knowledge of dental and oral emergencies during the COVID-19 pandemic in high school students. Method: Using quasi-experimental research type with a Non-Equivalent Control Group design. The research was conducted in June 2022. The population of this study was students of class X SMA Negeri 9 Yogyakarta using samples of 36 students for each group taken by purposive sampling technique. Data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests. Result: The Wilcoxon test showed that there were 36 students in the experimental group and 24 students in the control group with better knowledge results than before with a significant effect with a p-value of 0,000 (p <0.05). While the Mann-Whitney test indicate that the average score in the experimental group was bigger than the control group, there was no significant difference regarding the effectiveness between the use of video and e-booklet media with a significance of 0,121 (p>0.005). Conclusion: There is no significant difference regarding the effectiveness between the usage of video and e-booklet media in the improvement of knowledge about dental and oral emergencies during the COVID-19 pandemic in high school students.

          Keywords::Videos, e-booklets, knowledge, dental and oral emergencies, pandemic covid-19

          • Stress Response Measured by Cortisol and Adrenocorticotropic Hormone in Bupivacaine 0.5% Epidural Versus General Anesthesia During the Different Prostate Surgery
            The study intended to evaluate the levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol as a general markers of stress response in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy and transvesical adenectomy in bupivacaine administered epidural versus general anesthesia. This study was prospective, interventional and included a total of 120 patients from Urological Clinic of Clinical Centre of University of Sarajevo, that were stratified into 4 groups of 30 participants, based on inclusion criteria for 2 different operative methods for prostate related diseases. Both methods that were applied had a group of patients receiving epidural versus the group receiving the general anaesthesia. The stress response was evaluated through cortisol levels and 24-hour urine and ACTH in plasma samples. Study showed an increase of ACTH intraoperatively with both types of applied anaesthesia, but with significantly larger increase in patients subjected to general anaesthesia F(2.115) = 56.75, p<0.05. Also, it showed cortisol increase during the surgical procedure with both types of applied anaesthesia, but significantly higher increase in patients subjected to general anaesthesia U=1220, Z=-3.05, p<0.01, r=-0.28, and cortisol in urine increase regardless of the type of anaesthesia with significantly higher increase in patients subjected to the general anaesthesia. It is evident that epidural bupivacaine-based anesthesia has more favorable profile in terms of stress response indicators irrelevant of methodology of surgical procedure or baseline indication. Values of ACTH and cortisol (blood and urine) should be considered as relevant indicators in a patient recovery after application of different modalities of anesthesia.

            Keywords::ACTH, cortisol, anaesthesia, adenomectomy

            • Evaluation of the Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio and Monocyte to Lymphocyte Ratio in Patients with Multiple Myeloma
              Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and monocyte to lymphocyte ratio (MLR) seem most valuable parameters to predict the prognosis of patients with malignant tumors. The aim of the study is to evaluate the NLR and MLR in MM patients. Data from 90 MM patients randomized into three groups were collected. After white blood cell (WBC), absolute neutrophil count (ANC), absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) and absolute monocyte count (AMC) were obtained, NLR and MLR was calculated. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Statistically lower value of AMC and in MLR were found between genders. Our results show the elevated ALC in stage III MM patients compared to those in stage II (p=0.04) and in NLR on in ISS stage III MM patients compared to stage II (p=0.049). The same variables used in comparation between MM patients at different disease stages groups showed significant difference in ANC in MM patients in relapse stage in regard to those in remission stage group (p=0.013), as well as in MLR in MM patients in relapse stage group in regard to those newly diagnosed MM patients (p=0.01). The ALC to AMC ratio serves as a prognostic immune biomarker in newly diagnosed MM patients and can reflect the strength of the host immune system to tumor-induced immune dysfunction. Additionally, NLR and MLR can be used as diagnostic markers for MM patients, with higher NLR indicating a pro-tumor inflammatory condition that can lead to tumor progression and poorer prognosis.

              Keywords::multiple myeloma, neutrophile, lympocyte, monocyt

                • Cytotoxicity of Universal Dental Adhesives at Different Light-Curing Parameters
                  Introduction: Adhesive systems have been evolving and simplifying the number of steps to achieve adhesion. Adhesives come into contact withdifferent tissues in the oral cavity, leaving free monomers after the photocuring process, which can vary depending on the parameters of the lamp, affecting the corresponding cells. The purpose of this work is to evaluate cell viability after being in contact with universal adhesives that were light-cured with modified lamp parameters.
                  Materials and methods:Scotch Bond Universal (3M) and All Bond Universal(Bisco) were used in combination with two curing lights; BluephaseNmc and Valo. Twenty human teeth sectioned in half were used; adhesive process was carried out in two ways; one according to the manufacturer's instructions using each of the lamps; another, with the adhesive placement process according to the manufacturer but increasing the light-curing time; Subsequently, they were put in contact with mouse embryonic fibroblasts of the 3T3 cell line to determine the cytotoxicity of each group.
                  Results:The group with the least toxicity was obtained with an 800mW/cm2 lamp and 20 seconds of light exposure.
                  Conclusion:The power of photocuring lamps has an impact on cell viability; the higher the power, the greater the cell destruction.

                  Keywords::universal adhesives; adhesion; photocured; cytotoxicity; photocuring lamps