Genitourinary Complications of SchistosomiasisAbstract:
Background: Urinary schistosomiasis caused by S. haematobium is a parasitic disease endemic in many parts of tropical Africa, Middle East and South-West Asia and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The genitourinary complications of the disease are organ-specific and result from the immune response of the body to the chronic presence of the trapped eggs in the host tissues. The objective of this review was to elucidate the pathogenesis of the complications of schistosomiasis affecting the urogenital organs and the common treatment modalities.
Methods: Electronic literature search on PubMed Central, Google Scholar made using such terms as; urinary schistosomiasis, Bilharziasis, urogenital complications, medical treatment, ablative and reconstructive surgeries yielded 125 suitable articles which were incorporated into this review.
Conclusion: Urinary schistosomiasis is an endemic parasitic disease in many topical countries of Africa and south-west Asia and afflicts millions of subjects. Heavy infestation not adequately treated may result in serious complications that are organ-specific and affect the urogenital system with attendant morbidity and mortality. Preventive strategies are mandatory to reduce these sequalae of the parasitic disease.
Keywords:: Urinary schistosomiasis, pathogenesis, complications, treatment and prevention.