International Journal of Medical Science and Dental Research

Volume 7 Issue 2 (March-April 2024)

    • Characteristics of Heart Patients Undergoing Stent Placement at RSUP Dr. Wahidin Sudirohusodo Makassar
      Coronary stent, a breakthrough in the treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD), marks the evolution of cardiovascular disease (CVD) management that has revolutionized how we understand and treat the condition. The coronary stent aims to stabilize the results of balloon angioplasty by reducing the risk of complications such as restenosis and acute vessel closure. In Indonesia, data shows an increase in cases of coronary heart disease and hypertension, emphasizing the need for continuous research and development in the treatment and prevention of heart and vascular diseases. The research utilized a cross-sectional design, analyzing data from 85 medical records of patients diagnosed with cardiovascular disease at RSUP Wahidin Sudirohusodo / Makassar Integrated Heart Center in 2021. The majority of patients fell within the age range of 46-55 years (45.9%), with a predominance of male patients (82.4%). From the patient history, most experienced stage I hypertension (54.1%) without conditions of dyslipidemia (81.2%) or DM (50.6%). Regarding nutritional status, most patients were classified as overweight (49.45%). The conclusion of this study revealed that the characteristics of heart patients undergoing stent placement were predominantly early elderly individuals, predominantly male, with a history of stage I hypertension without dyslipidemia and DM conditions, and overweight nutritional status. It is suggested that there will be further development of broader early screening programs, particularly targeting patients with higher cardiovascular risk factors.
      Keywords::cardiovascular disease, coronary stent, overweight nutritional status

    • Profiling and Phenolic Content of Patchouliioil (Pogostemon cablin Benth.)
      Patchouli oil is an essential oil obtained from the distillation of leaves, stems, and branches of patchouli plants. Patchouli contains essential oils, patchouli alcohol and its derivatives, phenols, and a group of terpenoids in patchouli oil has antibacterial activity. The purpose of this study was to determine the total phenolic content of patchouli oil using KLT-Densitometry with a wavelength of 254 nm with gallic acid comparison. The test results of patchouli oil had a total phenolic content of 0.97619 gGAE/g extract or 97.619%. Validation of the Thin Layer Chromatography - Densitometry analysis method needs to be done to ensure that the method is suitable to be applied as a method of analyzing phenolic content in patchouli oil. Based on the test results of the validation parameters which include linearity, LOD (limit of detection), LOQ (limit of quantifitation), precision, and accuracy. The TLC-Densitometry method for determining phenolic levels in patchouli oil is said to be valid because it meets the validity test requirements, namely linear test with a value of r = 0.9909; LOD = 0.012 ppm; LOQ = 0.040 ppm; precision with a %RSD value of 0.059% and accuracy with a % recovery of 119.938%.

      Keywords: A Patchouli oil, Pogostemon cablin Benth., gallic acid, KLT-Densitometry

    • Determinant Factors of Surgical Site Infection after Laparotomy at Referral Hospital in Central Java Indonesia
      Surgical Site Infection (SSI) is a major clinical problem and the most common cause of nosocomial infection in patients after laparotomy. Data on SSI in Indonesia is still limited. The aim of this study is to determine the determinant factors of SSI after laparotomy at Referral Hospital in Central Java Indonesia. A cross-sectional study was conducted on medical record data of patients with a history of laparotomy from 1 October 2021 to 30 June 2022. Bivariate Chi-square analysis was performed to identify risk factors with a significant p-value <0.05. A total of 213 patients received laparotomy during the study period. SSI occurred in 9.38% (20) of patients. The mean age is 37.61 (±20.6) years. ASA score <3 (p=0.006, PR=5.11, 95% CI=1.416-18.453) and contaminated and dirty surgical wound (p=0.023, PR=2.860, 95% CI=1.124-7.276) were the determinants of post-laparotomy SSI. The incidence of SSI after laparotomy at Referral Hospital in Central Java Indonesia is quite high. The ASA score and the type of surgical wound are risk factors associated with an increased incidence of SSI. Attention to these factors must be increased in efforts to control and prevent infection so that the incidence of post-laparotomy SSI can be reduced.

      Keywords: Determinant factors, SSI, laparotomy

    • A Short Study on Meat Allergy
      Red meat is an important part of the human diet as it contains high-quality proteins, healthy fatty acids, and several micronutrients that promote good health. Red meat allergies were first recorded in 2009 in the US, by 2021 the number had increased to 34,000. The study was conducted to know the prevalence of red meat allergies in different regions through a Google form. The data was analyzed and differentiated. Most red meat allergies are due to mutton, fish, beef, chicken, pork, etc., and most people are developing fresh red meat allergies. So from this study, we concluded that most of the red meat allergies are increasing annually due to poor hygiene and improper cooking practices and mostly individuals with low immunity are highly prone to meat allergies.

      Keywords: red meat, allergic reactions, primary beef allergy, pork-cat syndrome, and α - Gal syndrome

    • Impact of 3d Printing Technologies on Designing and Executing Dental Implant Surgeries
      Purpose The aim of the study is to investigate the impact of 3D printing technologies on the process of designing and executing dental implant surgeries specifically within the context of Ghana. This includes examining how the integration of 3D printing affects the planning, precision, and outcomes of dental implant procedures in Ghanaian dental practices. Additionally, the study aims to explore the challenges, opportunities, and potential barriers associated with the adoption of 3D printing technologies in the Ghanaian dental industry. Through this investigation, the study seeks to provide insights that can inform strategies for optimizing the use of 3D printing in dental implant surgeries, ultimately aiming to improve patient care and outcomes in Ghana.
      Design/methodology/approachThe research employed a quantitative approach, focusing on numerical data collection. Using a descriptive survey design, the study aimed to specify the nature of the phenomenon under investigation. The target population comprised surgeons at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in Ghana, with purposive sampling used to select 100 respondents based on their knowledge of 3D printing and dental surgeries. Data was collected via a questionnaire due to its efficiency in gathering information from a large sample size.
      Findings In terms of impact, respondents widely agree on the benefits, including improved precision, efficiency with surgical guides, better outcomes with patient-specific implants, streamlined workflows, and the perceived value among dental professionals.Regarding opportunities, there's recognition of cost-saving potential and enhanced surgical accuracy, but mixed views on infrastructure support and regulatory frameworks. As for challenges, respondents identify barriers like limited access to equipment, insufficient training, high costs, concerns about product quality, and compatibility issues.
      Research limitations/implications The study's sample size of 100 respondents from the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in Ghana may not fully represent the diversity of perspectives within the Ghanaian dental industry. This could limit the generalizability of the findings to other dental practices or regions in Ghana.
      Practical implementation To address the identified challenges such as the lack of training and expertise among dental professionals, training programs and educational initiatives on 3D printing technologies can be developed and implemented. This will help to enhance the knowledge and skills of dental practitioners in utilizing 3D printing for dental implant surgeries.

    • Heat Shock Proteins as Guardians of Proteostasis in Non-communicable Diseases
      Purpose Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) include metabolic syndromes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders. Together, these deleterious health conditions pose a significant threat to global health. The precise regulation of proteostasis at the cellular level is essential for the development and advancement of non-communicable disorders. It regulates fundamental processes such as protein synthesis, folding, trafficking, and degradation. Molecular chaperones of the heat shock superfamily play a crucial but often overlooked role in maintaining proteostasis within this intricate biological network. The review focuses on understanding the complex functions of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in preserving cellular homeostasis and their significant involvement in treating NCDs. In this review of existing literature, we investigated the intricate processes via which HSP dysregulation causes proteotoxic stress, hence contributing to the onset of non-communicable diseases. In addition, we explored the potential therapeutic uses of targeting heat shock proteinsto improve the therapeutic outcome of major NCDs. There is a favourable prospect in the fight against NCDs that holds great potential for improving human health. By acquiring a more profound comprehension of the interrelated function of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in maintaining protein homeostasis, substantial advancements can be achieved.

      Keywords: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs), Proteostasis, Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs), Metabolic syndrome, Neurodegenerative disorders, Cardiovascular disorders.

    • The Effectivity of Bay Leaf Ethanol Extract (Syzygium polyanthum) as a Photoprotective Agent in Avobenzone and Octyl Methoxycinnamate Sunscreen Creams
      UV rays can have harmful effects on the skin, including erythema, premature aging and skin cancer, making sunscreen essential for protection. A combination of avobenzone and octylmethoxycinnamate in cream form has been proven to provide good protection against UV radiation. However, exposure to UV light can degrade this combination. To address this issue, an ethanol extract of Bay Leaf (Syzygium polyanthum) was added as a photoprotective agent to prevent the decrease in sunscreen effectiveness. Different concentrations of Bay Leaf extract (1%, 3%, 6%, and 9%) were used to create sunscreen formulations, which were then evaluated for their physicochemical characteristics and effectiveness using in vitro methods. The evaluation was carried out under two conditions, before and after UV light exposure. One-way ANOVA was used to analyze the results. The results showed that the physicochemical characteristics (viscosity, pH and spreadability) met the requirements. The evaluation of the sunscreen in vitro effectiveness showed the best value as a photoprotective agent was at an extract concentration of 9%, which showed ANOVA test sig <0.05 and in vitro SPF, %TE, and %TP value of 29.63 ± 1,6 (ultra protection); 0.000003 ± 0.000011 (total block); and 0.000378 ± 0.000104 (total block), respectively. The in vitro SPF value before and after UV light exposure at extract concentration of 9%, showed the smallest decrease in % value, which was 29.61%. From this research, it can be concluded that the addition of ethanol extract of Bay Leaf in sunscreen cream can function as a photoprotector agent which shows an increase in effectiveness and can reduce the degradation of active ingredients caused by UV light.

      Keywords: Bay Leaf Ethanol Extract (Syzygium polyanthum), Avobenzone, Octyl Methoxycinnamate, Sunscreen, Photoprotective Agent.

    • Unveiling the Guardian of Periodontal Health: Junctional Epithelium in Periodontics
      In the intricate world of periodontium, the junctional epithelium stands as a pivotal guardian, delineating the delicate boundary between the tooth surface and the oral environment. Its location makes it a unique tissue where the soft tissue directly attaches to the hard tissue in the oral cavity. This epithelium helps in the barrier defense mechanism and plays a pivotal role in maintaining periodontal health. This review explores the multifaceted roles of the junctional epithelium, shedding light on its structure, function, and significance in periodontal health and disease.

      Keywords: barrier, junctional epithelium, pathogenesis, pocket epithelium